ESP-r: Release Notes
These release notes summarize the main changes. There are many additional changes that are transparent to the
user. Information on these, as well as further details on all the summarized release notes, can be found in
ESP-r Central's change log.
11.11 (29 June 2011)
- Capabilities have been added to allow the three
supported infiltration methods (scheduled infiltration through .opr files, AIM-2, and air flow network)
to be used in concert during a simulation. Control capabilities have been added to
allow the switching between methods based upon a sensed temperature. For example,
a user might use the AIM-2 model to characterize infiltration when a
zone temperature drops below 20°C (and windows are assumed to close), and the
airflow network at higher temperatures.
- The existing facility for modelling lead-acid and VRB batteries
within the electric power domain has been extended to consider lithium-ion batteries. These new
modelling capabilities are described in
Neil Saldanha's M.A.Sc. thesis.
- Some minor bugs were identified in the existing battery models
and repairs were effected
- Building-side features can now be used to explicitly model systems.
This is achieved by allowing zones to be filled with fluids other than air
(this affects solar absorption) and connected to flow networks established to represent any fluid type.
This enables, for example, the explicit modelling of water solar collectors and water-cooled windows.
- Some of the computational overhead associated with XML/CSV
reporting has been reduced. This results in about a 35-40% reduction in simulation run-time
when this facility is active. This has no effect on run-time when the XML/CSV facility is not invoked.
- A long-standing bug in the thermally activated cooling
plant component model has been repaired. With this, the dependency of the chiller's COP
to the condenser air temperature was incorrectly calculated. This change affects
simulation results for all models incorporating this plant component,
but only for cases with non-constant COP.
- Support has been added for defining certain
advanced simulation options in the .cfg file. Previously only accessible in a
password-protected menu, these presets can now be defined statically and invoked
in silent-running mode. Currently two presets are supported: solar processing and
building solution implicitness. They are set as follows:
*sim-toggle bld-soln-implicitness 1.0000
*sim-toggle bld-solar-processing enabled
- The file browsing facilities for editing BASESIMP descriptions has been improved.
- Optical data from Window 6.2 can now be imported.
- Optical data from TNO's WIS application can now be imported.
- The facility that archives model files to a 'tar' file has been updated.
- The facility that exports an ESP-r model to an EnergyPlus IDF file
now generates the V3 format. The EnergyPlus conventions for parent and child surfaces are now correctly supported.
Parent and child surface relationships are also now supported in the Project Manager.
- The error messaging related to scanning plant network files has been improved.
- By default, plant network files are now written in the verbose format.
- The QA reporting has been improved for plant network controls.
- The interface and file handling for internal surface convective
coefficients has been improved.
- The model contents report for integrated performance views has been updated to
cope with local climate files. With this change, warnings about zero dates are no longer given.
- The interface that allows all the unreferenced vertices in a zone
to be removed via one command has been updated. This is useful for tidying zones with complex geometries.
- Support has been added to the Project Manager to allow it to
read and write .cfg files that include the *mvnt flag; this is used for treating ventilation systems in
the ideal HVAC models.
- The programming structures that implement contextual
help have been reconfigured to facilitate maintenance. Concurrent to this, the information
for many help dialogues has been improved.
- An annoying bug that caused the plant database manager to switch
from graphic to text mode has been repaired.
- A number of variables have been added to the XML/CSV reporting facility.
- The out.dictionary format (utilized with XML/CSV reporting) has been altered
to improve its clarity.
- Several small bug fixes related to stand-alone CFD simulations and
Tecplot output have been repaired.
11.10 (15 December 2010)
- The current stratified tank model (plant database comp. No 89) does not support
the specification of immersed heat exchangers. This model has been modified to provide support for specifying a single
spiral heat exchanger (plant database comp. No 103) and two spiral heat exchangers (plant database comp. 104). The
inputs for these components fix the location of the heat exchangers along the height of the stratified tank and
specify the geometry of the spiral of the heat exchanger.
- The shading and insolation module has been modified to include
obstruction block opacity. With this, opacity factor--ranging from (0 fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque)--can
be set for each obstruction block.
- The grid resolution and the number of obstructions available for shading
analyses has been increased. This allows more complex surfaces with thin frames to be accommodated.
- A water-filled zone feature has been added. This can be used in cases
where zone-coupled flow is defined via the zone operations file.
- A bug in the calculation of the humidification/dehumidification load
when using ideal zone control with humidity control has been repaired. Previously the controller determined
the correct relative humidity but incorrectly calculated the required (de)humidification to achieve it. The
magnitude of the error was larger in models with large latent loads when using long time-steps.
- An error in the xml/csv output for the average ground temperature
used by the BASESIMP model for BASESIMP-type boundary conditions has been corrected.
- An interface has been created in Project Manager to allow users to
apply the Alberta air infiltration model (AIM-2). This model has been available within the Simulator for a decade.
However, it was a 'hidden' feature that required the user to manually configure an input file. With this
addition the AIM-2 model can be more broadly applied. AIM-2 is a so-called single-zone model for
calculating stack and wind driven infiltration rates for single-family detached houses.
It can be considered as an intermediate method lying between the simplified treatment of
infiltration via the operation file and the more detailed network air flow approach.
- An interface has been created in Project Manager to allow
users to apply the BASESIMP foundation heat loss model. This model has been available within the
Simulator for a decade and has been partially supported by Project Manager. However, it
was a 'semi-hidden' feature that required the user to manually configure an input file.
With this addition the BASESIMP model can be more broadly applied. BASESIMP is a model
for predicting both the above-grade and below-grade heat transfer from residential slab-on-grade and
basement foundations and considers time-varying soil temperatures. It is appropriate for use
with small footprint buildings.
- An interface has been created in Project Manager to allow
users to apply the 'idealized' HVAC models that were added by NRCan to support the
HOT3000 software about a decade ago. These models have remained a 'hidden' feature that
required the user to manually configure an input file. With this addition the
idealized HVAC models can be more broadly applied. These can be considered as
simplified methods for predicting fuel and electricity consumption of residential HVAC
equipment that are used in conjunction with ESP-r's zone controls.
- Improvements have been made to the menu structure to facilitate
working with models that included large numbers of control loops and large numbers of zones and/or surfaces.
- Logic has been introduced to identify convex and concave corners in
rooms to automate creation of thermal bridge locations based on the room topology.
- The number of in-built ground temperature profiles has been increased and
further documentation has been added to assist in appropriate selections.
- A method has been introduced to scan the climate data, generate ground
temperatures at different depths and report estimated ground temperatures (via Marshall and Holmes 1988).
The Kusuda method for calculating ground temperatures has also been added.
Validation/ Compliance Checking
- A large number of interface and modelling changes have been made to provide
the functionality required by the UK National Calculation Method (NCM).
- ESP-r can no longer be compiled with GCC3. An upgrade to GCC4 is now mandatory.
- Support has been added for the Install script to auto-detect the architecture
on Cygwin running under Windows Vista and Windows 7.
- A number of new climate files have been included while some others have been updated.
- A number of new exemplars have been added.
- A number of changes to the automated testing scripts have been made.
- Material vapour diffusion values for several entries
associated with the IBO PassivHaus reference book have been corrected. This would only impact models which used these
materials and where interstitial condensation reports are generated.
- The Climate Analyzer includes a facility to convert global
horizontal into beam and diffuse. This was updated to make it more robust and to offer three methods:
the Erbs Klein & Duffy method, the Maxwell method and Orgill & Hollands method.
11.9 (25 June 2010)
- A 1-node plant component model of an air-source heat pump has been added.
The model incorporates optional outside air temperature compensation for the flow temperature set point and optional defrost calculations.
The model is described in: Kelly N J, Cockroft J, Gauri S, "Performance Analysis of Air Source Heat Pumps
Using Detailed Simulations and Comparison to Field Trial Data", Paper submitted to The Biennial Conference of IBPSA-Canada,
eSim2010, Winnipeg, Canada, May 19-20.
- Further enhancements have been made to the GTK version.
- Integrated Performance Views can now be generated for models up to 72 zones.
- Constructions can now use to up 12 layers.
- The construction materials database has been cleaned up and materials specified
in the IBO PassivHaus book have been added.
- The EPW climate import facility has been updated to support files that match the
specific format of climate files purchased from CIBSE as well as newer additions to the US DOE climate sets.
- There was a bug in drawing zones which had been defined via the click-on-bitmap
facility: this has been fixed.
- Occupant casual gains defined on a floor-area basis were subject to rounding
errors in reporting graphs and tables: this has been addressed.
- The drawing of the site origin has been improved for small and large models.
- Occupancy pattern files and documentation for Korean standard occupancy, lighting,
and equipment patterns for 30 room types have been added. (Contributed by DASS Korea.)
- A new facility has been added that allows measured data (e.g. room dry bulb
temperatures) to be associated with a model as an item in a temporal file.
This allows users to display predicted and measured data simultaneously.
- By convention, a demand imposed on a battery is assigned a positive value if
the battery is discharging and a negative value if the battery is charging.
The current and power draws reported by the battery model in the power flow domain now follow this convention.
Validation/ Compliance Checking
- The logic, databases, and documentation associated with UK code
compliance have been updated based on feedback from the accrediting board.
- The export of ESP-r models to the TSBI3 tool is no longer supported. (This
tool no longer exists.)
- Further support has been added for the alternative ‘META file’ model description format.
- Database references have been made to improve model portability between computers.
- The support of graphics functions on some 64-bit computing environments has been improved.
11.8 (23 December 2009)
- New control domains have been added for complex fenestration systems
(CFCs). The facility expands CFC functionality to allow for dynamic control of shade layer deployment/retraction
and slat angle adjustment as a result of a sensor/actuator/control law description. Control functions are set up
from Project Manager in a similar fashion to other control domains. It is also possible to set up a schedule for
- A new global controller has been implemented. This controller senses the
state of control loops in plant and flow domain and actuates the actuator of one control
loop in the plant or flow domain, hence emulating the action of a simple MISO controller.
The actions that are performed on multiple inputs are AND, OR, NOT, SLAVE, MAX and MIN.
- An occupant behaviour model has been added. This is a statistical description of
occupant behaviour related to thermal comfort and occupant behaviour and is
modelled as adaptive algorithms as a flow network controller controlling
windows, doors, fans and air conditioning.
- Individual zone controls have been implemented for the idealized HVAC ASHP-cooling model.
Zone control models a zoned air handler which sends cooling to individual zones depending on thermostat calls.
- Corrected a bug in BCL06 (zone - plant linkage) - previously mass diversion ratio was
assumed to be unity when calculating heating/cooling load of a zone.
- A mechanism has been implemented for moving a model in terms of changes in latitude and
longitude as defined in a roaming file. Solar calculations are performed
per timestep as the model moves. For times when the model is in motion between named
locations (for which latitude and longitude is given) linear interpolation is used. Model
is also rotated as described in the roaming file. Upon rotation, pressure coefficients are also
changed if an air flow network is active. Shading blocks are not rotated.
- Control day types are now synchronised with calendar day types from the
context menu. Now users can define day types in the context menu and associate different controls for different day types. The day type
description is consistent with operations description of day types. Controls can be associated with one of three schemes to describe day types
- One control for all days
- Different controls for day types as described in the context menu i.e. a list of Julian days for every
day type (or if not defined then default to weekday/saturday/sunday)
- Dates of validity. One control is active all days within each period defined by dates of validity.
- General upgrade for shading and obstruction entities to support additional obstruction rotations
and a generalized six sided obstruction type.
- Revise tabular listing option in res module to support additional
columns of data (now ~20 columns to the application feedback and ~24 columns when exporting to file).
Validation/ Compliance Checking
- Standard models for UK NCM (National Compliance Method) compliance have been updated to
reflect changes in the UK NCM methods for infiltration.
- Scripts have been added to automate the mandated UK NCM test sequence.
- Include system calls to official compliance reporting tools
needed for UK NCM use (when running in Native Windows).
- Added a parameter option for the ish module so it can use
existing ASCII shading files rather than recalculate shading. This has been implemented as an
option in the Install script with a substantial savings in time to build ESP-r.
- Increase the geometric complexity of individual surfaces.
This is useful for corridor floors and for users who are digitizing zones from complex rooms in CAD drawings.
- Increase the maximum number of zones in models to 72. This allows UK NCM test models to be run and users who need to
work with larger models can do so with the standard distribution (e.g. not have to re-compile).
- Many improvements have been made to improve the operation of ESP-r in the various supported operating environments.
- Many improvements have been made to data structures to facilitate further developments.
11.7 (5 June 2009)
- A new construction type, the complex fenestration construction (CFC), has been added.
This allows a more accurate treatment of windows with or without shading devices.
The front end of the CFC facility is the Glazing Shading Layer Editor, GSLedit, used to assemble the window construction via a graphical user
interface. The editor can be downloaded from the ESRU website downloads section.
- CFC models are functioning with some limitations (which will be addressed in the future). The limitations currently include:
- surface must be vertical with external boundary condition
- a CFC is restricted to contain only one shading layer
- only slat-type shades are modelled (horizontal and vertical slats)
- CFC is not coupled with daylighting models
- slat angle control is currently not available
- timestep must be at least 6 timesteps per hour
- The theory and implementation of the CFC facility is described in http://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/10012/4164/1/Lomanowski_Bartosz.pdf. Refer to Appendix F of this thesis for a user's manual.
- Theoretical errors in the four available phase change material models have been corrected.
Previously, the apparent conductivity/specific heat was being incorrectly applied to the nodal equation coefficients and
several variable indices were incorrect.
- A plant component for natural convection heat exchangers (commonly
employed in solar hot water systems) has been added.
- Some improvements to the importation of DXF files have been made.
- A new item has been added to the temporal definitions facility to impose vertical solar radiation data on surfaces.
- A new item has been added to the temporal definitions facility to
impose heating and cooling setpoints from external files.
- A number of new exemplars have been added.
- The interface that manages images associated with models has been updated. Users will now be able to add captions to images.
- The scripts for converting ESP-r models between machine platforms have been updated.
- An option has been added for the single-click creation of zone operation files for zones without internal gains and air flow.
- The export of ESP-r models to VRML has been updated to correct an error in constructions for obstruction blocks.
- The CEN 15265 validation tests (annual space heating and cooling) have been added to the embedded validation section.
- The ASHRAE Standard 140 furnace test cases have been added to the automated tester test suite.
- The default compiler set used by the Install script has been changed from gcc-3 to gcc-4.
Developers with older Cygwin installations and/or Cygwin installations with both gcc-3 and gcc-4 may experience build errors related to the linking of standard libraries. If this occurs, it is recommended that you reinstall Cygwin and exclude the gcc-3 packages.
- The building.h header file has been rationalized in order to better support parameter
changes (e.g. number of zones and surfaces). A number of variants of this file have been deleted as users should modify the
revised version if they wish to compile the source to support larger models.
11.6 (21 November 2008)
- The convective heat transfer calculation algorithm taken from ISO 15099
for vertical ventilated channels has been added.
- A number of improvements have been made to the TRNSYS plant
component "wrapper". This includes restructuring the code used to read TRNSYS wrapper's input file in order
to improve code readability and increase the input file's flexibility. User-implemented function values are
now supported as inputs in this file. The use of TRNSYS storage variables is now also possible.
A number of coding errors have been addressed and the code documentation has been improved.
- Reading of bidirectional optical datasets from measurements has
been expanded to include (and use) multiple datasets and different types of datasets. Controls have been
also added to switch between different datasets during simulation.
- The battery model was improved by adding a battery life calculation
and optional active battery life control. The model can now also be used to simulate (Vanadium) Redox Flow batteries.
- Minor modifications were made to the electrolyzer model, the
hydrogen PEMFC model and the hydrogen compressor model to add inputs or to fix bugs.
- A multi-stage hydrogen compressor was added to the plant database.
- New plant components for a boiler and a radiator have been added.
- A new BASESIMP type '999' boundary condition has been added to allow
results generated from NRCan's BASECALC program to be used in ESP-r simulations.
- The calculation of the heat addition rate to a plant component
model of a humidifier has been corrected. As well, additional outputs have been added to this model.
- Outputs have been added to the plant component models for
a damper and a value. No calculation changes have been made to these models.
- Plant database entries have been added for models that represent
a basic heat exchanger, a reversible heat pump, a basic radiator, a pump, an hydronic heat rejection device,
a multi-junction, and a fan. The static templates and coefficient generators for these models have existed
in the source code for a long time; however, these models have not been accessible since their corresponding
database entries were absent.
- A long-standing bug in the water storage tank plant
components that were created and that have been used extensively for modelling cogeneration
systems (plant components #57 and #78) has been repaired.
- A bug in the treatment of thermal bridges has been repaired.
- Improvements have been made to the iterative solution procedure for plant
- The xml and csv results output facility has been expanded to consider
additional simulation parameters. Some formatting changes have also been made.
- A number of bugs in the idealized HVAC models have been repaired.
- Added logic to avoid numerical problems with one of the external
convection correlations. This resolves a bug with Loveday's "raw wind speed" external convection correlation (listed
in the ESP-r simulation toggles menu).
- The display of help messages in the GTK version has been
improved and a number of bugs have been repaired.
- The functionality of the tdf module has been merged
into the Project Manager to facilitate the use of temporal data. Temporal data need no
longer be described at the same frequency as the simulation, and can be used with simulations
of differing time resolution.
- Additional functionality has been added in preparation
for demonstrating compliance with the UK building regulations. A sub-folder has been included
to support UK building code compliance requirements for specific occupancy, lighting and
small power loads for standard room types in buildings. Users will use these definitions if
they have selected the UK_NCM method in the interface.
- Alterations in the treatment of day types for operations have been made.
- A number of bugs related to the importation of DXF version 12 files
have been repaired and associated help messages have been improved.
- The interface for defining scheduled air flows has been improved.
- Support for reading optical data generated by Window 5.1 and 5.2
has been added.
- A check has been added to ensure that specified day-types
correspond to the current simulation year.
- Climate files for Cuban and Mexican locations have been added.
11.5 (8 May 2008)
- A new computational engine has been developed for the ish module (for shading/insolation analysis)
to enable obstruction blocks to cross the plane of a zone surface.
- New functionality has been added to the ish module and bps (the simulator) to calculate diffuse shading.
- Shading/insolation bugs relating to non-south facing inclined surfaces have been addressed.
- An error in the calculation of sun position unit vector x, y, z coordinates
was corrected. This only affects radiance calculations when conducted silently and when a daylight coefficient
casual gains control is assigned in the model.
- A number of options have been added for the calculation of sky temperatures
for longwave radiation exchange from external surfaces. These can be invoked through a simulation toggle.
- A bug in the WATSUN-PV special material model has been corrected.
This bug could, in some situations, predict an electrical production at night.
- A bug in the 2-node plant radiator model (type 21) has been corrected.
Previously, the model incorrectly computed the heat transfer from the radiator when no water flowed through the radiator.
- A simplified PI room controller has been added that is specially
adapted to room control of wet central heating (WCH) systems.
- An outside temperature compensation controller has been added for WCH systems.
- The functionality of the generic TRNSYS "wrapper" has been expanded
and a number of bugs have been corrected to enable the use of multiple
TRNSYS TYPE's within an ESP-r plant network
- Additional functionality has been added in preparation for demonstrating
compliance with the UK building regulations.
- Heating and cooling setpoints for zone controls can now be imported
from temporal files.
- Improvements have been made to the facility that creates air and water
flow networks and to the underlying data model.
- The user interface of the ish module has been improved by the
rationalisation of terminology and the updating of help outputs.
- The facilities for reporting ish shading results have been rationalised
- The recovery of casual gains results has been simplified and improved.
- ESP-r has supported the viewing of CFD results by the third-party
TECPlot tool for some time. This export facility has been updated to support the current format for TECPlot.
Support has also been added for an alternative OpenSource CFD results viewing facility called ParaView.
- Two methods for diffuse solar from global horizontal have been added
to the clm module to support import of Korean MET data.
11.4 (9 November 2007)
Generic code update
- A new system has been implemented to
track and report version numbers. The information contained within ESP-r Central's subversion repository
is automatically extracted and reported when an ESP-r binary is executed: information such
as the branch and revision number is reported.
- The Install script has been further improved: all user prompts are
grouped at the beginning; a new debugging prompt has been added; command-line arguments for X11, GTK, and
X-less installs have been added.
- GTK file browsing support has been added for a number of
file export facilities.
- Updated GTK code to support more font types so users
can switch to Courier for reports in the text feedback area.
- A new feature has been added to enable the use of TRNSYS TYPEs
within ESP-r plant networks. This has been accomplished by adding a generic TRNSYS "wrapper" component to ESP-r's database of plant
components and creating an accompanying static template and coefficient generator. This wrapper executes TRNSYS TYPE source
code and places the outputs from the TRNSYS TYPE into the appropriate locations in ESP-r's plant matrix of equations. Use of this new
facility requires that the fortran source code for the TRNSYS TYPE be compiled into ESP-r. However, the "wrapper" has been designed
such that no alterations to the TRNSYS TYPE code are required (as long as its syntax is compatible with the compiler, e.g. g77).
To make use of a TRNSYS TYPE within an ESP-r plant network, a text input file must be created to map the relationship between the TRNSYS TYPE's
inputs and outputs and the plant network. At this point in time, no interface is provided to create this text file: it must be created
in an external text editor. This feature should be considered beta at the current time.
- The implementation of the IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 fuel cell cogeneration
model as a plant component has been completed. This treats both PEMFC and SOFC devices.
- The implementation of the IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 combustion cogeneration
model as a plant component has been completed. This treats both
internal combustion engine and Stirling engine devices.
- An idealized VAV/CAV zone control law has been added for use
in early design stage investigations.
- There was a bug in the calculation of mean radiant temperatures
(MRT) in the espvwf module. This was repaired.
- For bi-directional optical properties a bug was fixed in handling the
direct-to-diffuse component of the transmitted radiation. Previously it was
incorrectly multiplied by the incident diffuse irradiation; now it is
multiplied by the direct irradiation (with shading factor if applicable).
The only impact is for models with bi-directional data - the magnitude of
the correction will depend on whether the direct-to-diffuse component is
significant for this case.
- The power-only-component model of a wind turbine has been modified.
A new option was added to allow users to specify wind speed data in a boundary
condition definition file. A new 'look-up table' feature has been added to support this wind turbine model.
With this an external text file can be created with two columns of data (wind speed and power output in this case).
A plant domain, electric domain, or special material model can make use of the look-up table which
includes facilities for interpolation.
- The calculation of the auxiliary power draw of the hydrogen PEMFC
plant model has been corrected. This change affects simulation results using this model.
- The WATSUN-PV special material model has been modified to take into
account the reflection of the PV module surface when calculating the effective irradiance reaching the solar cell.
This change affects simulation results using this model.
- Support has been added for linear thermal bridges. This feature can be
invoked by the user via Project Manager's zone menu. This feature is only at beta stage at present.
- Support for plant controller sensor based on temperature difference
between two plant components nodes has been added.
- A new plant component has been created for a fully mixed water storage
tank with an immersed coil heat exchanger. The heat transfer between the coil and the tank fluid
can be based either on a correlation for a horizontal tube or for a helical coil.
- A new plant component has been created for a stratified
water storage tank. The number of stratified layers that can be used to represent
the water within the tank can vary from 1 to 100.
- A new plant component to represent make-up water flows has been created.
The temperature of the make-up water flow can be calculated or specified.
- A new plant component that imposes a flow rate between two other plant
components has been created. The imposed flow rate can be scheduled.
- The existing pump plant component has been modified to support flow
of a mixture of 50% propylene glycol and 50% water.
- A number of changes have been made to harmonise and tidy up the
Project Manager interface. Essentially, this involves modifications to help messages and default
settings, and rationalisation of the menu syntax. Note that there is no change to menu item ordering
and therefore no impact on script operation or simulation results.
- The code related to event profiles has been updated in order
to support a greater number of profiles. Warning messages regarding incorrect events profiles have been improved.
- A bug could cause a reversal on surface ordering after
exporting to a viewer format file. This has been repaired.
- A number of 'continue' options have been added to dialogues
to improve program navigation.
- Minor format changes have been made to the IPV report.
- A new capability has been added to allow the extrusion of
zone enclosures from a surface.
- The menu structure related to zone rotations and transforms
has been improved and some new functionality has been added.
- The standard materials databases (constr.db2.a) has been
updated with data acquired through a web search as well as data from "Inventory of Carbon & Energy" by Hammond &
Jones, University of Bath 2006.
- The code related to control law 11 has been updated:
the interface has improved feedback and help, a glitch in data entry has been repaired and improved for clarity,
the trace output has been expanded, and the data provided in the QA report has been expanded.
- Project manager now issues a warning rather than a failure
for out-of-range wind reduction factors for network air flow.
- To conform to EU Energy Performance Building Directive
an alternative materials database format has been added. This change will be transparent for legacy models
using binary materials databases.
- Changes in format of IPV report specific to cooling
data to allow plotting in I2PV java tool.
- The frequency of residuals plotting during CFD solutions
has been doubled.
- The CFD module allows the visualization of flow on a time-step
basis. Previously this was restricted to 99 time-steps. Now, up to 999 time-steps can be visualized.
- New functionality has been added to the facility that produces
xml and csv simulation outputs. Time-step data can now optionally be stored to disk rather than
pushing data onto the heap. This substantially reduces bps's memory requirements (by 5 to 70%)
but also increases run-time (by 5 to 20%). Documentation on invoking this new feature is included in
a text file.
- A midnight spike bug related to graphing and timestep listings
of casual gain data has been corrected.
- A number of new climate files have been added: Dijon (France),
Seoul (South Korea), Hong Kong, Guangzhou (China), and Prague (Czech Republic).
- Support added to clm for the importation of Korean climate data.
Quality Control Utility
- A large number of additional regression tests have been
added including the full suite of inter-program comparative test cases for micro-cogeneration
devices developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42.
11.3 (17 April 2007)
Generic code update
- Numerous changes have been made to accommodate native Windows
file naming conventions (spaces, back slashes). This improves the functionality of ESP-r under native
- Numerous changes have been made to improve the functionality of
the GTK version of the project manager and climate analyzer.
- Support has been added for the CEN 13791 solar
distribution rules. With this ESP-r passes on all CEN 13791 test cases.
- Two mass flow components have been added: a regulated window ventilator
and a roof mounted ventilation cowl.
- Numerous changes have been made to the implementation of the Alberta
Air Infiltration model (AIM-2):
- The reporting of error messages during the reading of the AIM-2 input file has been improved.
The simulator is now halted if an error occurs in the reading of the file.
- The calculation of the wind flow factor for houses with crawl spaces
has been added.
- The user can supply the flow coefficient and exponent directly.
- Numerous minor bugs have been repaired.
- Data on this model has been added to the QA reports.
- Two idealized HVAC models (GSHP and DHW) and the
BASESIMP ground heat transfer model are dependent upon ground temperatures. Previously,
each of these models read ground temperature parameters (annual average,
amplitude of annual sine wave, and phase shift of annual sine wave)
independently from input files. This functionality is preserved, but
a new method has been implemented to calculate the required ground
temperature parameters from the climate file. Three plant components
of water storage tanks also make use of this new model.
- A 'cancel' button has been added in about 135 locations to improve
- The menu structure for the editing of control law period data
has been revised to facilitate the description of controls. Documentation has also been improved and
new exemplars have been created to demonstrate the use of some of the more obscure control
- A facility has been added to allow the importation of typical
operations, air flow, and casual gain profiles.
- Labels related to flow component 40 have been updated to remove
the words 'volume flow' because it is actually an opening type.
- The QA report could be confused by old control files having 6 items
for a zone basic controller. This has been repaired.
- Support has been added for 'silently' inserting openings in surfaces.
- Support has been added for the reading of a zip geometry format file
(as produced by the Xzip program).
- The functionality of the events profile database manager has been
incorporated into the Project Manager to eliminate the need for this separate utility.
- Some alterations have been made to the structure of the database menus
to improve program navigation.
- An option has been added to allow the export of version 1.2, 1.3, 1.4,
and 2.0 EnergyPlus IDF files.
- The format of the IPV report has been updated. A control has been
added to allow the user to toggle between report formats.
- The user input dialogue for the 'constant' boundary
condition has been altered to allow the user to input a very high temperature boundary
condition (as requested by one user).
- An error in the reporting of surface absorbed solar radiation
- The documentation on solar radiation data has been improved in the
ASCII data exported from the climate analyzer.
Quality Control Utility
- A number of new test cases have been added to the regression tester.
- New functionality has been added to the regression tester to
facilitate diagnosing errors.
11.2 (10 November 2006)
Generic code update
- ESP-r can now be compiled using the gcc4/gfortran compiler set that
is shipped with many current Linux distributions. However, non-trivial
numerical differences have been found between ESP-r compiled with
gcc4/gfortran and ESP-r compiled with gcc3/g77. Consequently gcc4/gfortran
builds should be considered beta for the time being.
- The 'Install' script has been redesigned to streamline the installation
process. A number of redundant user prompts have been removed and support
for compilations 'out of the box' has been improved for Sun cc/f90 and MINGW.
- The 'Readme' file has been re-written to reflect recent changes to the
distribution and compilation of ESP-r, and to provide the user with more information.
- The 'text-only' version of ESP-r was revived, allowing users to build ESP-r
in environments on which neither X11 nor GTK is available.
- The treatment for half-hour centred solar data (such as found in CWEC
climate files) has been updated so that sub-hour simulations use the
appropriate interpolation. This affects only solar data.
- A small bug affecting insolation analysis has been corrected.
- A new plant component model of an adsorption storage unit has been added
and variants of existing plant components for water storage tanks,
pumps, pipes, and a new controller have been created to support the
modelling of adsorption storage systems. Interested users are referred
to the M.A.Sc. thesis of Maria Mottillo, which is available in the 'related
publications' section of the ESRU web site.
- A new plant component has been added for modelling solar thermal
collectors. Interested users are referred to a paper by Didier Thevenard,
Kamel Haddad, and Julia Purdy, which is available in the 'related
publications' section of the ESRU web site.
- A new boundary condition type has been added to the building thermal
domain to support the CEN 13791 standard. A treatment has also been added
to support the CEN 13791 approach for modelling surface convection.
(The CEN 13791 approach for treating solar absorption on the other side of
partitions will be added in a future release.) Numerous interface changes
have been incorporated to allow users to impose the CEN 13791 standard for
- ISO 6946 U-values are now reported.
- Simulation presets can now support the integration of hourly results.
- The logic for flow component multi-sensor controllers has been reworked.
- Numerous changes have been made to improve program navigation and work flow.
- Additional contextual help has been added, e.g. reporting of energy
balances, external pressure coefficients.
- There is increased use of GTK widgets to improve the operation of ESP-r
built with the GTK (versus the X11) libraries.
- The logic supporting optical property switching has been corrected and
- Improvements have been made to QA reports.
- Improvements have been made to the viewing of CFD domains and the feedback
provided to the user.
- A number of exemplar models have been improved.
- A bug caused problems when running models which included both pre-defined
simulation periods and a CFD domain. This has been repaired.
- A bug caused program crashes when a faulty zone fuzzy logic controller
was specified. This has been repaired.
- A facility has been added to allow the copying of infiltration/ventilation
and/or casual gains from other zones. Data can also be scaled by
zone volume or floor area.
- A bug related to the drawing of the site origin has been repaired.
- A new exemplar has been added with an abstract representation
of a heated floor and a chilled ceiling.
Quality Control Utility
- A number of bugs were repaired in the regression tester.
- New functionality has been added to the regression tester to help
diagnose differences between reference and test versions of ESP-r and to compare run-time differences.
11.1 (28 July 2006)
Generic code update
- The source code is now maintained and distributed via a Subversion
repository named "ESP-r Central".
- Simulation run-times have been reduced through the elimination of some
unnecessary data output statements.
- A routine has been added to predict the affect of snow cover upon
- An additional one-diode PV model has been added.
- A user-selectable option has been added to treat the solar irradiance
included in climate files as being centred on the half hour rather than
at the top of the hour.
- Capabilities have been added to support simulations spanning multiple
- Plant containment losses can now be injected into zone energy
- Preliminary versions of small-scale cogeneration models for fuel cell
and combustion-based systems have been added as plant components.
- Preliminary versions of models for simulating hydrogen electrolyzers,
compression, storage, and fuel cells have been added as plant
- Preliminary versions of models for lead-acid batteries and DC-DC and
DC-AC power conditioning have been added as electric power flow
- A facility to allow the imposition of boundary conditions upon plant
components has been added.
- An interface has been added to configure the output of simulation
results in comma-separated values (CSV) and XML formats. This is
complementary to ESP-r's standard results recovery facility.
- Improvements have been made to the reporting of mass flow network
- A new function has been added to the GTK version to display images
associated with a model in a pop-up window.
- Alterations have been made to the feedback provided to the user when
IPV's are generated.
- Support for the reporting of U-values and admittance values has been
added, as per CIBSE and ISO standards.
- Support is now provided for longer file names.
- Additional checks on the validation of CFD boundary conditions have
- New functionality has been added to support some of the new simulation
capabilities described above.
Quality Control Utility
- A utility to support regression testing along with an expanded suite
of test cases has been added. This is located in the "tester" directory
at the same level as the "src" directory. This utility is used as a
quality control tool to support the efforts of ESP-r developers.
10.13 (20 Mar 2006)
Generic code update
- Two code distributions
had evolved - one supporting traditional X11 graphics and a roughly
parallel version which makes use of the GTK graphics library. These
two variants have essentially been merged so that only a few source
files and the Install script differ. This has required a number of
changes distributed within the source code to bring the two streams
- The initial implementation
of the GTK version implements essentially the same functionality as is found in
the X11 version (although some bitmap and mouse click events are not yet implemented).
The general layout is the same, however, and there is now
a set of pull-down menus at the top of the GTK version (which will
evolve in later implementations).
- A number of file handling
functions have evolved in support of longer file and path names. This
should support greater flexibility in defining the location where models are saved.
- ESRU are looking for people
interested in joining our exclusive group of BETA testers for the
upcoming native Windows version of ESP-r. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org
and you will be contacted with information on how to acquire the
BETA verion for testing. We are also interested in those in the ESP-r
community who can help us evolve the installation procedure for
Windows machines as well as the documentation.
- The Install script and the
top level Makefile have been substantially updated. The Install script
now is able to create both X11 and GTK-based graphic applications.
The GTK version is mostly a direct port of the current functions
and is substantially complete. GTK will form the basis for future
- The Install script now
includes an option for building a Windows native graphic version of ESP-r.
The Windows version is a Beta release - there are a few features
that have not been implemented and a few restrictions
on where models can be placed.
- The Install script offers
better support for installing ESP-r in locations other than /usr/esru.
It creates custom files (defaults/esprc/climatelist etc.) as well
as exemplar models that reflect the install path.
- The Install script
includes a --debug option for developers!
- Compiler directives
and include paths have been assessed and a number of unused
directives have been removed. There is no longer a
/esp-r/include folder; instead, the include
folder of the source distribution is used. This makes it
easier to host and maintain multiple versions of ESP-r on one computer.
- The Makefile now
supports a 'make tars' command to archive the source distribution
and a 'make clean' to remove temporary files created during
the install process.
- The Makefile is now
able to scan all exemplar and validation models when it is looking
for shading files that need to be updated.
- A browse parameter has been added to the
command line so that the simulator knows where to put results files
if the user is browsing and simulating a model. This should reduce occurrences of users
not being able to find their results files.
- Flow control has been
extended to allow for ON/OFF controls to include a definition of the
ON condition at different periods (e.g. 0.2 of nominal area/flow rate
during the period). This removes the need to resort to a range-based controller
or parallel paths with two different sizes of component.
- Flow control has been
extended to allow for bi-directional flow components (e.g. doors) to
be open or shut or partially open depending on the control logic.
- The IPV report has been revised to
include seasonal subtotals for the metrics included in the annual
- The summary
section of the IPV report now includes both area-normalised and whole-building data
for capacity, energy demands and emissions.
- Having to
re-enter the name of the flow results file name is now not necessary for
most models that follow standard naming conventions.
- A make me a version of
my model facility has been introduced. It supports a range of
common tasks (about a dozen) such as using a new climate file, altering the geometry
or composition of one or more zones. It knows the dependencies involved
in the change and creates alternative files so that the original model
is no longer altered as the variant model evolves. For example - a change
of climate can imply a change in site location which can require new
shading files. If there is an Integrated Performance View then it is
updated with new seasonal and scaling definitions to match the
new location. Dependencies in zone geometry and/or zone constructions
are also noted and the relevant files copied. It makes sure that
you update the associated documentation!
Where expert users used to resort to editing files and manual copying,
the Project Manager now takes care of most of this. For those
interested in parametric studies which end up with multiple models
the new facilities can ensure maximum re-use of descriptive elements
and minimise risk of model corruption. The new facilities also work well
- The QA report has
been expanded to include more contextual information (e.g. site information,
conversions to primary energy units) as well as allowing various
topics to be included/excluded at different levels of report detail.
- The validation section has been updated.
It is now possible to run standard tests from BESTEST (ASHRAE 140)and CEN (prEN ISO 13791).
- Both shading and viewfactor
analysis selection lists now offer a global option which allows several zones
to be recalculated or be dereferenced or to be added to the model.
- There are additional checks
that zone operation files have correctly sorted periods. A file browse and continue
option have been added when accessing zone operations.
- The definition of an Integrated
Performance View (IPV) now includes hours of heating and cooling system
use as a performance metric. When selecting the 5 assessment seasons there is
now the option for a single week in each season or the whole season. The
former is particularly useful for larger models which would generate
a huge annual results file. The IPV is now also included in the QA report.
- It is possible to convert
the zone operations schedules of infiltration and ventilation into
an equivalent air flow network. There are some caviats - an unbalanced
flow inherited from the zone operation files will become an unbalanced
flow network. No control is yet implemented - you have to add these yourself,
which is where the defined ON flow control is particularly
useful. This can save time in cases when moving from an initial schedule
of flows to network-based approach to air movement.
- The export of ESP-r models
to EnergyPlus continues to evolve. It has been tested in the context
of both simple models as well as intermediate sized office blocks
and with increasingly complex geometry.
- The export of ESP-r models
to VRML worlds (with matching HTML surface attributes file) is
still well worth using for QA purposes as well as sending to clients.
CFD domain solver
- Testing is underway for
a version that supports higher grid densities. Although Cygwin
hosted versions seem to be limited to about 320K cells, million
cell domains seem to be possible on other operating systems.
Shading and Insolation
- Shading/insolation files
are critically sized rather than being a fixed record width for all
zones. Files which might have been 300K are now less than 100K.
- It is now possible to redirect
the shading reports and insolation synopsis to a text file.
- A dozen cities in the
United States have been added to the standard distribution (Fairbanks
Alaska, Phoenix Arizona, Miami Florida, Boise Idaho, Chicago Illinois,
Baltimore Maryland, Duluth Minnesota, Albuquerque New Mexico, Memphis
Tennessee, El Paso Texas, Houston Texas, Burlington Vermont).
10.12 (3 November 2005)
- A dozen new external heat transfer
coefficient correlations have been included as simulation toggle options
within the simulator. These include correlations derived from the literature
around the world as well as experimental work being done in Scotland. These
correlations should be considered work in progress and subject to refinement.
- The linkage between mass flow networks
and CFD domains has become more robust and flexible. It is now possible to
define a CFD domain which has multiple connections to the flow network as
well as local heat sources that acquire their values at each timestep
from scheduled casual gains.
- Frequency bins reported within
an Integrated Performance View have been revised. In some cases (e.g.
resultant temperatures below 16C or above 30C) the previous report was incorrect.
- A long-standing glitch in
the interface that manages plant components in a plant network has been corrected. It is now
possible to delete components without affecting the list of containments
and connections. In addition the plant network reporting has been extended.
- Since the May release it was
discovered that requests to re-sort operations file casual gain periods
was incomplete. This has been corrected.
- There is now an interface
to describe contaminant sources (such as CO2) in rooms. The information
supplied is used in conjunction with a mass flow network to support
contaminant tracking, and in the case of CO2 it can be tied to the number
of occupants in the zone.
- The export of an ESP-r model to
an EnergyPlus IDF file (version 1.2.2) has been extended. It now exports more complex
surfaces (EnergyPlus can handle them) as well as compact schedules for
occupants, lighting and small power loads. A bug in the case of no surfaces
connected to the ground has been corrected.
- The Project Manager detects when a materials database
was created on a different computer type and attempts to rebuild it from
an ASCII version if one is available.
- Recalculation of shading after
global model changes now offers the choice of silent or interactive
operation when the site position is altered.
Generic code update
- Location of help messages
related to menus have all been changed to permit easier transition to the
new graphics library under development. This applies to all modules of
ESP-r with user interaction.
CFD domain solver
- The treatment of contaminants
within a CFD domain has been unified and extended to work with contaminants
arising from an associated mass flow network. The format of the sources
portion of CFD files has changed.
- CFD example models (most) and the models
used in the validation tests (all) have been updated to the current format.
- Contaminants turbulent Schmidt numbers
are derived from physical parameters or by values contained in the dfd file. The
contaminant description can be taken from the mass flow contaminant definition.
Source boundary conditions (such as heat sources within the domain) is tied to changes
in the related zone operations file.
- An option to create a
sequence of images at different times of day has been added. Users can specify the size
of the image to be created, the period in the day and the frequency.
- There were typographic errors in
the ESP-r Install script which caused warning messages about G++ not being
found. This has been corrected.
- A new series of example models has
been included to give additional options for ESP-r workshops. This series
is based on a three zone model with two mirror offices and a passage with
a base case model, a model with higher geometric resolution, a model with
an integrated PV facade, models with C02 contaminant tracking and ventilation
control, a model with a explicit HVAC components, a model with a flow network
and natural ventilaton control etc. The models are intended to be modified
by workshop participants rather than built from scratch.
10.11a (31 May 2005)
- Perez 1990 anisotropic diffuse
sky model made the default (in the 10.11 release, the default was, by mistake,
the 1987 model).
- Updated labelling of the solar
radiation data to indicate whether it is global horizontal or direct normal
radiation (depending on what is in the climate database used by the simulator).
- Revised the interface to the
module tdf to fix some bugs in the input of climate data.
10.11 (20 May 2005)
Common library code
- Minor adjustments to scanning
of configuration file.
- Revision of interface to plant
components to support easier editing, to allow plant only models to access
simulation parameter sets, and to add further model checking. In plant only
models, the results module can now be called with the name of the plant results
file if this was set up in the simulation parameter sets.
- Revised interface to temporal
data. The user can now manage links between a model and temporal data (add/delete).
Setting up a control setpoint based on temporal data has been simplified,
and time step zone infiltration and ventilation data can now be added to the
- Code added to scan and run validation
models (e.g. BESTEST). This is work in progress.
- Made it easier to copy several
surfaces within a zone or between zones. Remove the (confusing to most people)
option to merge two thermal zones.
- Added control options to contaminant
(e.g. CO2) sources.
- Bugs corrected in routines MZCOE2
and SIMCOM dealing with sub-hourly simulations. If several simulations were
run in the simulator and the timestep changed from one run to the next, the
coefficients could be incorrectly calculated. Thanks to Alex Ferguson of NRCan
for reporting this problem.
- Added Perez 1990 model as an
alternative anisotropic diffuse sky model and made this the default in preference
to Perez 1987. Also updated the equations for extraterrestrial radiation and
air mass (minor impact).
- Fixed a bug in Perez 1987 implementation
which affects solar calculations when solar altitude is less than 25 degrees.
- Small change made to correct
bug in the calculation of electrical power consumption of casual gains.
- Fixed bug when checking how often
user defined ground temperature profiles are referenced. This could have resulted
in a zero array bound.
- Revised interface to plant results
and expanded reporting options. Added time vs variable, frequency bin, statistics,
hours above, hours below, tabular (with different separators) as well as supporting
animated psychrometric chart.
- Plant results display follows
the pattern for flow results - the user can toggle between views of the same
- Colour added to psychrometric
chart, with a separate subroutine used to draw the background curves.
- Update reporting of plant networks
and plant components scanned from database.
- The model converter module ecnv
is now able to export an attributed VRML 2.0 world of the current model. This
is particularly useful for interactive explorations of the inside and outside
of models. Each surface is linked so access to its full attribution is supported.
- Revised the module tdf to use
an ASCII file to hold temporal data with a scratch binary file created to
support editing and simulation. This change allows temporal data to be platform
independent as well as supporting additional columns of data (up to 50).
- Zone infiltration/ventilation
is now supported as a temporal type. This replaces timestep air flow files.
Corrected timing of display for the case of one timestep per hour and tested
that data recovered during simulation and results recovery is synchronised.
- Reviewed and revised most of the
exemplars in the plant folder. Each now has a default simulation parameter
set and updated geometry, operation and control files.
10.10a (25 February 2005)
- A bug in the Radiance Desktop
was fixed which was preventing it being called correctly from the Project
Manager in Version 10.10. A further correction was made so that longitude
difference was set correctly in the lighting simulation (previously it was
set to zero).
- Several exemplars have been updated
(e.g. to take into account the new format of the operations files, and to
recalculate shading files during installation).
- Some common blocks in uncertainty
analysis routines were corrected.
10.10 (10 February 2005)
Common library code
- One type of dialogue, which asked
for confirmation (yes/no) and which was used in hundreds of places in the
ESP-r suite, did not support contextual help or indicate a default action.
This dialogue has been updated throughout the suite. Users who rely on scripts
to undertake batch processing may need to adapt their scripts.
- The source code now includes
statements which are a subset of Fortran 90, but which are supported by the
GNU compiler collection. For most recent Linux, Cygwin, MINGW based computers
there are no changes required. For Solaris machines, the F90 compiler is now
required if a GNU compiler is not available.
- Several places in the interface
lacked an escape option - for example, clicking on convection regimes created
a definition even if the user only wished to see what the facility offered
or entered the facility in error. Now the zone viewfactor, convection regimes,
lighting controls and shading have an ignore option. This is also now an option
if flow networks were picked in error.
- Documentation within zone operations,
and control files extended from 64 characters to 248 characters. This allows
users to better document assumptions.
- A number of minor bugs and inconsistencies
have been corrected:
- When creating flow networks,
mismatching component fluid types (e.g. connecting a crack to a pump) no
longer traps the user in an endless loop.
- When changing a construction
database entry from opaque to transparent or transparent to opaque, all
surfaces which use this construction have their OPAQ/TRAN attribute updated.
- Specification and reporting
of layer thickness in constructions is now in mm rather than m.
- Changing a construction database
entry name is prevented if surfaces reference it (to avoid orphans).
- Definitions of casual gains
expressed as per m2 were drawn incorrectly if the list of surfaces
which formed the base had not been identified. This is noticed and corrected
while reading in the zone geometry.
- It was possible to create casual
gains where the sum of the radiant and convective portions was not close
to unity. Tighter checks are now made.
- Corrected one model rotation
option which caused solar obstructions to be rotated incorrectly.
- When creating zones as general
polyhedra, the initial surface has a floor orientation rather than a ceiling
- A collection of plant models
developed by NRCan have been included.
- 3-node solid-oxide fuel cell
(SOFC) and 1-node proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration
- 3-node thermally-activated
cooling system plant component suitable for simulating combined cooling,
heating and power systems.
- hot and cold water storage
tank models specifically for use with cogeneration models.
- Fixed a problem with the radiant
heating/cooling plant component recently submitted by Aziz Laouadi (NRC)
which caused a significant increase in CPU requirements for all simulations
involving the explicit plant network.
- A collection of post-processing
HVAC models developed by NRCan have been included. These predictions are based
on the predicted heating and cooling demand profiles. Currently, no interface
has been implemented.
- A forced-air furnace model for
different furnace types using different types of fuels.
- An air-source heat pump model
for residential heating.
- An air-conditioning model for
residential split unitary cooling systems.
- Ground source heat pump model
(GSHP) to model various type of ground coupled heat pumps including: vertical
single U-tube per bore hole, horizontal 4-pipe, 2x2 arrangement, horizontal
2-pipe side-by-side arrangement and horizontal slinky arrangement.
- Ground coupled heat pump model
(GCEP) to model ground coupled heat pumps with multiple vertical U-tube
- Residential heat-recovery ventilator
- DHW model capable of modelling
various DHW systems with gas or electric fuel sources.
- An additional save level has
been introduced to record the performance of the NRCan contributed facilities.
This is used within the HOT3000 variant of the ESP-r simulator. There is
also an initial implementation of XML output of performance reports.
- An additional timestep controller
has been added to impose iteration between the plant and electrical domain
solvers. Also added controller to manage co-generation and tri-generation
- An implementation of the Alberta
Infiltration Model (AIM-2) for calculating air infiltration in low rise buildings
has been contributed by NRCan. No interface is yet available to this facility.
- There was a timing bug in models
with flow networks where the pre-simulation period included days in December.
This caused incorrect data to be written to the flow results file e.g. if
three pre-simulation days were in December then the first 3 days of flow results
were written incorrectly. The simulation itself was not in error. This has
been corrected (see next note).
- There was a timing bug in the
case of a simulation beginning on 1 January and with a pre-simulation period
of one or more days. This caused results to be reported with one timestep
delay. This offset did not occur if the simulation began on any other day
of the year. This has been corrected via use of a new function contributed
by NRCan and which is now used for each of the domain solvers.
- Contaminant tracking has been
implemented for models which include a flow network. Multiple sources and
sinks can be defined in each zone; for example, schedules of CO2
emissions from occupants. Concentrations are reported as graphs, statistics,
and as timestep listings. First order chemical reactions between contaminants
are included. The results are included in the flow results file and compare
well against predictions from CONTAM.
- A power-only component model has
been added to the power flow domain to impose electrical loads (read from
an external text file) onto the electrical network. This facility can be used
to model the effects of occupant driven loads at high time resolutions.
- Fixed a bug in the simple fixed
efficiency PV component where the power was calculated in W/m2
rather than W. Power output is now multiplied by the surface area to correct
- Casual gains (defined in the operations
file) can now be linked to source terms in the CFD domain. Hence for a dynamic
simulation the correct convective gain from casual gains is applied.
- Reporting of contaminant concentrations
is now available for models with flow networks and contaminant sources and
- Enhancements to the listing and
graphical display of uncertainty predictions have been made.
- Reporting of casual gains expressed
as per m2 could be in error if the list of surfaces which formed
the base had not been identified.
10.9 (7 December 2004)
- In keeping with the philosophy
of linking ESP-r to other modelling systems, users can now export to EnergyPlus
an ESP-r model with materials, constructions, surfaces (all three and four
sided surfaces as well as those including one window or one door - more complex
surfaces are omitted). Boundary condition attributes are translated and the
parent/child relationship between opaque and transparent surfaces established.
The exported models usually pass the EnergyPlus parser with no errors or with
minor warnings. Currently, approximate optical properties are established
but schedules are not yet included. We anticipate updating the geometric filters
to match the October EnergyPlus release as well as including casual gain schedules
in the near future.
- The format of the operations file
has been updated to include header information. Files in the previous format
can be updated by the project manager. The simulator expects to find the new
- Ground node temperatures associated
with longwave radiation calculations were reset each day to the ground temperatures
specified in the model definition. Thus the ground profile temperature evolution
did not get passed on to the subsequent day. In the revised code of this release,
only the deepest ground node is reset at the start of each day. Thus the predicted
ground surface temperature will typically now be colder in winter and warmer
in summer. To test the impact of this change, the standard QA benchmark model
was run with and without the modification. In the winter, losses from outside
surfaces to the ground increase slightly. For models free-floating this depresses
temperatures slightly (fraction of a degree). For models with control this
increases the heating demand over time slightly (~3.8%). In the summer, losses
from outside surfaces to the ground are reduced. For models free-floating
this increases the temperatures slightly (fraction of a degree). For models
with control this slightly increases the cooling demand (~2.2%) but not the
capacity of cooling. The range of predicted outside ground surface temperatures
is increased: from 1°C - 6°C to -4°C - 6°C in January and 12°C - 27°C to 12°C
- 33°C in July. (Thanks to Jeff Spitler for reporting and correcting this).
- Graphing of mass flows were found
to have an incorrect timestamp if the graph did not start at the beginning
of the simulation. This has been corrected.
- Climate files for the following
Canadian locations have been added to the standard distribution: Calgary,
Quebec, Saskatoon, Shearwater, St. Johns, Toronto, Vancouver, Whitehorse,
Winnipeg. Climate files have also been added for Inchon, Kangnung, Kwangju
and Ulsan in Korea and Geneva in Switzerland.
- As the number of supported surfaces
has increased and some users are including small scale artifacts (such as
blind slats as surfaces) in their models, the bookkeeping in the ish module
now can associate up to 10 insolated surfaces for each glazing at each timestep.
- The install script Install_mingw
(for creating an ESP-r distribution as Windows console applications) has been
revised to also install climate files and some of the exemplar model databases.
Previously this required manual intervention.
- Installation instructions have
been updated for Linux and Cygwin installs.
- QA benchmark tests have been
expanded to include surface energy balance reporting and timestep listings
of some variables.
- The next release of ESP-r will
include a major injection of code from Natural Resources, Canada. To support
this, a number of extensions to F77, which are supported by GNU compilers,
will be required. On Sun Solaris machines which do not have the GNU compilers,
the F90 compiler will be invoked.
- A number of minor revisions to
the source code have been made in the current release to support the next
10.8 (10 July 2004)
Project Manager interface
- Added user confirmation when
changing the registration level of the model (i.e switching from building-only
to building+systems or systems only). Novices could inadvertently invoke this
change and find that references to existing zones could be lost.
- Staff at Natural Resources Canada
identified that zone operation files were being scanned repeatedly during
a simulation and logic has been added to correct this.
- Staff at National Research Council
of Canada have contributed a systems component representing radiant heating
and/or cooling in structural slabs as well as an exemplar model and documentation
showing its use.
- The viewfactor calculation module
has been adapted to cope with zones of higher geometric resolution and higher
gridding density (24x24 maximum per surface rather than 12x12). Complex zones
and/or zones with surfaces acting as thin frames around windows are now more
likely to be resolved.
- Climate module can now create
an entry for the climatelist file based on information scanned from a climate
file and additional questions asked of the user. This supports users who wish
to, for example, download an EPW file from the DoE web site and then incorporate
this new information into their ESP-r infrastructure (with seasons and typical
seasonal assessments defined).
- Additional climate files for France
and Germany have been included in the standard distribution.
- The temporal data manager now
supports separately defined casual gains which can be associated with one
or more zones. For example, an office_use type could be defined with minutely
data for occupancy, lighting and small power loads (each as convective, radiant
and latent contributions).
- The layout of the tdf module interface
has been altered to make it easier to see graphs of the data over time.
- The format of the Integrated Performance
View (IPV) description has changed to support additional documentation such
as the naming of groups of zones associated with a particular performance
metric - e.g. occ_off_db for dry bulb temperature in offices during occupied
periods. The exemplar models have been updated to the new file format and
users can use those as a guide for modifying their own IPV descriptive files.
- The IPV report has an additional
output format which can be read by a Java display agent (under development).
Compilation, installation and portability
- The Install script has been revised
to set up more of the plant system databases used by the exemplar models.
- Alternative header files (building52.h
and building62.h) for 52 surfaces per zone and 62 surfaces per zone have been
included so that users who want to create models of greater complexity can
replace the standard building.h file and recompile for this larger number
- Some of the exemplar models included
with the distribution have been updated. In particular, those exemplars which
included plant models and the so-called primitive parts system models have
- The ESP-r Cookbook (PDF document
available from the publications section of the ESRU website) has been extended
to include a discussion of how to efficiently create models via the click-on-bitmap
and click-on-grid geometry options.
10.7 (31 March 2004)
Project Manager interface
- Code analysis revealed that zone
geometry was being scanned frequently, sometimes only to recover a single
data item. Updated data structure to hold frequently accessed information
so that there are fewer times when zone geometry needs to be scanned and geometric
- The extended data structure supports
new types of reporting (such as the total area of each construction used in
the model) and allows the topography of surfaces and constructions to be used
to enhance the display of information.
- Added drawing of surface normals
in wire-frame view as an aid to finding surfaces which are reversed.
- Revised code that manages the
copying of zones so that is also copies associated zone files (schedules,
convection regimes etc.).
- Revised code that manages the
creation of constructions (it did not recognise when construction layers were
- Extended the use of file browsing
functions to additional zone and system file types.
- Extended the QA report to include
flow network description and zone/project fabric heat loss data for comparison
with building regulations.
- Testing indicated that some zone
geometry actions (e.g. copying a surface from another zone and adding a new
surface) occasionally resulted in incorrect selection lists. This was fixed.
- An error in the generation of
Integrated Performance View definitions (missing commas) was fixed.
- Added display of ambient data
within a psychrometric chart. Fixed bug in editing hourly data.
- Testing revealed that a number
of CFD models converged differently on Linux and Solaris computers (now there
are no differences in convergence). There were also a number of places where
a SMALL value was being added to stop division by zero when this was not an
issue (fixing this improved simulation speed). There are also additional checks
for small differences in temperature and density when evaluating buoyancy
effects (which improves stability).
- A number of CFD models have been
included in the exemplars as well as in the validation and QA folders.
Shading and insolation, viewfactors,
- Each module uses alternative wireframe
drawing code which supports drawing surface normals and requires fewer scans
of zone geometry.
- Revised editing of attributes
so that for simple components all data is visible and user is given the option
to edit flow nodes and components as they are created.
- The previous release had a typographic
error which prevented the interface from asking the user for the name of the
flow results file.
10.6 (23 December 2003)
Project Manager interface
- The top-level menu structure has
been revised to place model opening, model import/export and model folder
- Basic folder and file browsing
facilities have been added (so you don't have to use the command line as often).
This facility is being gradually introduced where file names are requested.
For those who regularly keep several configuration files with a model, the
variants are presented for easy selection.
- Databases are accessed with similar
facilities - to open-browse, create-new, copy-standard-database, convert binary-to-ascii-to-binary.
- CAD import and export have been
relocated and TSBI3 export and THINGS (MicroGDS) export added.
- Geometric manipulations - when
copying surfaces and/or vertices, new vertices are checked to see if they
fall on an existing edge and are included in the relevant surfaces.
- Command line option added for
silent binary-ascii-binary conversion of ESP-r native and EPW files.
- Command line option added for
silent recalculation of shading and insolation. This is used by the Install
script to build shading files for the exemplar models.
- An error was found in one of the
basic flow components which caused it to underestimate the volume flow rate
by a few percent (Component type 110: specific air flow opening). The validation
benchmark tests that include air flow networks indicate small changes in infiltration
and ventilation as a result.
installation and portability
- The Install script has been extended
to include Cygwin compilation. The download site has been updated with an
ISO image which can be used to install Cygwin, and pre-formed ESP-r and Radiance
distributions onto a Windows PC.
- The Install script uses command
line options in the climate and shading modules to build binary files for
the particular operating system.
- The Install process has been augmented
to support compilation of stand-alone Windows console applications under the
MSYS and MINGW compilation environment on PCs. This will build .exe files.
Paths such as /usr/esru/esp-r/bin become C:/user/esru/esp-r/bin. An alternative
set of support files (climatelist, default, exemplars) are included as well
as alternative exemplar configuration files (which point to C:/usr/esru/esp-r/databases).
exercises on the web site under Courseware -> ESP-r have been revised to
be consistent with the new Project Manager interface.
10.5 (5 August 2003)
- The list of special components
has been expanded to include a solar collector backplate and a ducted wind
Project Manager interface
- In zone geometry, the definition
and interface which identifies the "base area" of a zone has been revised
to notice when surface areas change and/or when surfaces are deleted. Functions
related to importing surfaces and copying vertices now check if `new` vertices
are along an existing surface edge and update the model accordingly.
- File input/output format statements
have been revised so that the MS (maximum number of surfaces per zone) parameter
(in the building.h include file) can be altered without having to alter format
statements in the source code. The code should support MS being a large number.
However, testing has only progressed to a maximum of 42 surfaces. The default
maximum number of surfaces is set at 32.
- Additional checks have been added
to low level input/output to trap character strings of zero length.
- The timestep 4 controller (iteration
without time step reduction) has been reconstituted. This controller allows
the successive solution of the active building domains (e.g. thermal and air
flow) without time progressing, i.e. the present time row is held constant
and the future time row is recalculated based on the results of the connected
- The integration of air flow and
the thermal domains has been changed as follows. In the case of intra-zone
ventilation the resulting thermal load was added to the infiltration load
if the source zone was at the same temperature as ambient air. While this
is mathematically correct the reporting of infiltration and ventilation could
be incorrect. The second change is that in the case of a failed flow solution
the results from the previous time step are used. Both of these changes had
no effect on the results of the standard benchmark test models.
- A number of new climate files
(IWEC data sourced from the US Department of Energy web site) have been included
in the source distribution. The format of the climatelist file has been extended
to record five seasons and five best-fit/typical assessment periods and the
climate module has been revised to search for best-fit climate patterns.
- The graphic network module (net)
has been updated, a new format for icon definitions has been defined and a
graphic network file format defined which can hold all of the information
needed for a mass flow network. Thus there is now the option to create a graphic
description of a flow network which can be used by the simulator. An exemplar
model has been added to demonstrate this (but note the model must be "owned"
by the user for it to run successfully).
- Performance results for mass flow
results are now held in a binary file. Additional flow metrics are recorded
and can be accessed in the results module.
- The definition of integrated performance
views has been expanded to support one, three or five assessments, user selected
performance metrics (currently a dozen metrics), and user defined sets of
zones, each with scaling factors.
installation and portability
- The Install script has been adapted
to support Mac OS X as well as compilations within a Cygwin environment on
10.4 (23 December 2002)
- Update to climate module so that
the climatelist file is rescanned to find typical periods. The climatelist
file has also been updated.
- Update to net code which corrects
occasional colour switching in display as connections are added.
- The network flow reporting facilities
have been extended to allow the listing and export (with all the standard
field separator options) of flow metrics. Flow metrics from several flow paths
can be combined in reports and graphs (i.e. to find aggregate flows). Selecting
ac/h at a node now finds all associated connections and sums the flows into
the node. The network flow graphing facility now also includes flow velocity
for components which have a defined cross-sectional area.
installation and portability
- Makefiles for each module have
been updated to accept directives needed to compile under the Cygwin environment
as well as Linux/Solaris variants. As the Cygwin port is a BETA version the
main Install and Makefile do not yet include this.
- Re-establish compilation
on Silicon Graphics platforms.
10.3 (1 November 2002)
Project Manager interface
- The click-on-bitmap geometry creation
now allows several zones to be extruded from one bitmap image at the same
- Previously, several sections of
code were used to clear the common block relating to the model description.
These have been brought into one subroutine and the treatment of initial file
names has been made more consistent.
- Code modifications to extend zone
and global transforms to include MRT sensors as used in comfort calculations
(by Werner Koerner).
- The file format of the mass flow
results database has been changed to a binary format for speed of access It
now includes all of the calculated flow metrics. The previous ascii file output
has become a "trace" option.
- Some bugs in writing the mass
flow results have been corrected, in particular for the cases of multiple
timesteps per hour and for start-up periods before Jan 1st.
- The network flow reporting facilities
have been updated to support:
a) simultaneous display of flows/temperatures/pressures along several flow
paths using the same form of graph as zone data;
b) the removal of limits on the period of flow data to be displayed;
c) the availability of flow statistics (max/min/std dev).
10.2 (4 September 2002)
Project Manager interface
- Additional geometric input options
are available. The user may import a bitmap image of a building/site and either:
a) define vertices within a zone by clicking on points on the bitmap, or b)
extrude a zone from points on the bitmap.
- The constructions database and
the project manager now support the concept of linking two non-symmetric constructions
so that when one side of a partition is attributed, the 'other face' is attributed
with an appropriate construction.
- The temporal definition database
(for entering measured data) has been revised to support more data columns
(increase from 19 to 27) and to correct some problems with conversion between
binary and ASCII forms of the database.
- The installation script now 'installs'
a number of standard climate data sets and the climate list file now includes
seasonal definitions and definitions of typical winter/spring/summer weeks.
- It is possible to define linkages
between the network flow solver and CFD domains.
- Animations of CFD states can be
created for each time step of a conflated simulation.
- Building facade-integrated ducted
wind turbines can be defined as a co-generation power source. The definition
is done within the Project Manager in the "special components" section.
10.1 (26 July 2002)
installation and portability
- Fix double definition of string
variable in module 'bld' so that 'bld' compiles correctly. (Note: the modules
bld and plt are stripped down versions of the simulator for building and plant
respectively and only of interest to developers. The Makefile has been changed
so they do not, by default, compile. Developers wishing to compile these modules
should explicitly type "Install bld" or "Install plt")
- Install script allows compiler
flags to be set for Sun workstations which use g77/gcc compilers. Sun 3 workstation
- Correct common block definition
PMENUSV in lib/esrublk.f to be consistent with other routines.
10.0 (June 2002)
Release with new licensing arrangements.
ESP-r is now licensed under GPL Open Source.
- Spurious warning messages about
connections (which were syntactically correct) corrected.
- Monitoring graph for zones and
loads has clearer labels.
- A problem in the detection of
file permissions in the location where simulation results are to be written
has been corrected.
- In the solar routine, the variable
CAI (cosine angle of incidence) was not reset if a surface receives no direct
radiation. Therefore it (incorrectly) took its value from a surface earlier
in the surface list that received direct radiation. This bug did not affect
the direct radiation on the surface (this was zero). However, the Perez model
for anisotropic diffuse radiation uses the variable as part of the enhanced
circumsolar diffuse radiation calculation. The bug resulted in a slightly
higher value for diffuse radiation on such surfaces than should have been
the case. The impact on the benchmark models was negligible.
- When editing a single connection,
if the connection is to another surface in another zone, both sides attributes
- Corrected a problem in displaying
a surface-normal arrow.
- ASCII file format changed to allow
use of comma separators (smaller file size).
- Able to import EnergyPlus EPW
files (with minor editing) so there are now ~500 international weather files
of high quality and definitive pedigree available for download. The documentation
in the distribution gives directions on how to accomplish this.
- Conversion from DXF (version 12)
to ESP-r altered to cope with extra spaces and wild-card characters some CAD
tools include in such files.
- File format enhanced so it can
support denser grids and larger magnitudes of local heat generating blockages.
- Calculations revised for improved
- Enhanced treatment of blockages
and small supply openings.
- Corrected problem identified by
Jeff Spitler on the distribution of insolation within zones where there is
partial shading. The insolation data in the shading/insolation database now
accounts for all radiation entering the zone. In standard test cases, differences
in predicted temperatures have been small (less than 0.5°C).
- For the stand-alone network mass
flow simulator, the writing of the flow results file convergence flag has
been corrected. The program detects when flow results data timesteps exceed
what can be plotted in the results recovery module.
Project Manager interface
- Interface supports boundary types
which are similar to the current zone but with a temperature and/or radiation
- Data model now holds name of folder
for local databases.
- Interface to zone operations (scheduled
flow and casual gains) now includes graphic feedback and additional copy and
- Added feedback on zone selections
for constructions, operations, shading etc. Includes note on whether data
has been defined and or if the data file is missing.
- Corrected simulation parameter
sets interface bug which caused some file names to begin with unprintable
- Corrected code so that both Linux
and Unix tar commands are supported when creating an archive of the current
- Enhanced definition of CFD domain
to automate much of the definition of cells and regions by scanning the zone
- Support creation of new local
material and constructions databases as well as copying of default material
and constructions databases for use in a project.
- Correct problem with detecting
surfaces which should be included in the list of surfaces associated with
the zone's base area.
- Added function to add internal
mass (in the form of vertical or horizontal rectangular surfaces) within a
zone. Requires specification of origin and rotation angles.
- Support deletion of multiple obstruction
- QA report enhanced to generate
reports about surfaces which meet specific criteria - such as all surfaces
which face the outside but have an unknown composition.
- Reporting of casual gains changed
to provide additional subtotals (how many hours have small power loads etc.)
and aggregate data for several zones.
- In `enquire about` reports, the
labels of zones and surfaces are no longer truncated.
- In `hours above/below` reports
the percentage of time is also reported.
- The interface has been adapted
to support models of greater complexity in terms of form, composition and
controls (up to 28 zones and 800 surfaces). (But, we still believe, simpler
models are usually best!)
- Export of graphic and text feedback
areas of the interface now allows user defined file names. Export of wireframe
vector commands (in xfig format) has been added to the "export" facility.
- The reporting/ QA report has been
revised for clarity. Redundant entries have been removed and additional information
included. The "archive model" command has been made more robust.
- A bug in the Window 4.1 import
facility to recognise air gaps has been fixed.
- The optical database interface
has been revised to identify data fields used for documentation purposes.
- Openings in surfaces (windows)
can be specified as a percentage of surface area.
- Several trigonometric functions
have been added for use with vertices, surfaces and solar obstructions.
- It is possible to describe and
assess phase change materials (via the apparent capacity method).
- Treatment of moisture flow within
constructions includes materials with low permeability.
- The link with mould growth prediction
has been re-established.
- The adaptive convection method
has been revised to adjust as a zone is heated, cooled or changed to free
floating conditions. It also now responds to heat injections within constructions.
- Orientation rotation has been
enabled during an assessment (useful for assessing vehicles).
- Relative humidity (RH) control
has been upgraded as part of ideal control. Capacity limits have been added
to the basic moisture injection RH control. The user also has the option of
instigating temperature based control of RH.
- The CFD domain analysis is more
robust. The treatment of blockages, mean age of air and small openings has
- A bug which excluded some transparent
surfaces from being passed to the Radiance model has been fixed.
- A number of choices for setting
up typical image types with mimimal user interactions (external, internal,
daylight factors, glare) has been added.
- File names have been adapted to
prevent overwriting when multiple visual assessments are carried out on the
- Daylight factor calculations have
been revised to iterate with increasing resolution until predictions converge
(with added display of results).
- The interface has been revised
in order to clarify tasks.
- A bug has been fixed in the creation
of a scratch file so that the viewfactor module (mrt) can be used with models
irrespective of their file location.
- The calculation of insolation
in the case of non-convex rooms and rooms with surfaces "floating" inside
the room has been revised.
- External convection data recovery
has been updated (fixed bug in graphing facility).
- User defined labels can be added
- Reporting of PV output, in particular
the averaging of data, has been corrected.
- A room acoustics module (aco)
has been implemented in ESP-r to assess the reverberation time of one or several
zones (collaboration with Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, EPFL,
Lausanne). This module applies diffuse-sound field theory to calculate the
reverberation time. The calculation includes the absorption of the space boundaries,
the occupants and furniture. Also included is the air absorption, which takes
into account the air temperature and humidity from the thermal simulation.
- The use of the acoustics module
requires an enhanced data structure, which is currently in its final development
stage. Therefore in this beta release, users can only run one exemplar (see
exemplar menu). The documentation of the exemplar contains more details. Background
theory can be found on ESRU web pages.